Apache Cassandra 1.1 Documentation

About Writes in Cassandra

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Relational databases typically structure tables in order to keep data duplication at a minimum. The various pieces of information needed to satisfy a query are stored in various related tables that adhere to a pre-defined structure. Because of the data structure in a relational database, writing data is expensive, as the database server has to do additional work to ensure data integrity across the various related tables. As a result, relational databases unlike Cassandra usually are not performant on writes.

Cassandra writes are first written to a commit log (for durability), and then to an in-memory table structure called a memtable. A write is successful once it is written to the commit log and memory, so there is very minimal disk I/O at the time of write. Writes are batched in memory and periodically written to disk to a persistent table structure called an SSTable (sorted string table). Memtables and SSTables are maintained per column family. Memtables are organized in sorted order by row key and flushed to SSTables sequentially (no random seeking as in relational databases).

SSTables are immutable (they are not written to again after they have been flushed). This means that a row is typically stored across multiple SSTable files. At read time, a row must be combined from all SSTables on disk (as well as unflushed memtables) to produce the requested data. To optimize this piecing-together process, Cassandra uses an in-memory structure called a Bloom filter. Each SSTable has a Bloom filter associated with it that checks if a requested row key exists in the SSTable before doing any disk seeks.

For a detailed explanation of how client read and write requests are handled in Cassandra, see About Client Requests in Cassandra.

Managing Stored Data

Cassandra now writes column families to disk using this directory and file naming format:


Cassandra creates a subdirectory for each column family, which allows a developer or admin to symlink a column family to a chosen physical drive or data volume. This provides the ability to move very active column families to faster media, such as SSD’s for better performance and also divvy up column families across all attached storage devices for better I/O balance at the storage layer.

The keyspace name is part of the SST name, which makes bulk loading easier. You no longer need to put sstables into a subdirectory named for the destination keyspace or specify the keyspace a second time on the command line when you create sstables to stream off to the cluster.

About Compaction

In the background, Cassandra periodically merges SSTables together into larger SSTables using a process called compaction. Compaction merges row fragments together, removes expired tombstones (deleted columns), and rebuilds primary and secondary indexes. Since the SSTables are sorted by row key, this merge is efficient (no random disk I/O). Once a newly merged SSTable is complete, the input SSTables are marked as obsolete and eventually deleted by the JVM garbage collection (GC) process. However, during compaction, there is a temporary spike in disk space usage and disk I/O.

Compaction impacts read performance in two ways. While a compaction is in progress, it temporarily increases disk I/O and disk utilization which can impact read performance for reads that are not fulfilled by the cache. However, after a compaction has been completed, off-cache read performance improves since there are fewer SSTable files on disk that need to be checked in order to complete a read request.

As of Cassandra 1.0, there are two different compaction strategies that you can configure on a column family - size-tiered compaction or leveled compaction. See Tuning Compaction for a description of these compaction strategies.

Starting with Cassandra 1.1, a startup option allows you to test various compaction strategies without affecting the production workload. See Testing Compaction and Compression. Additionally, you can now stop compactions

About Transactions and Concurrency Control

Cassandra does not offer fully ACID-compliant transactions, the standard for transactional behavior in a relational database systems:

  • Atomic. Everything in a transaction succeeds or the entire transaction is rolled back.
  • Consistent. A transaction cannot leave the database in an inconsistent state.
  • Isolated. Transactions cannot interfere with each other.
  • Durable. Completed transactions persist in the event of crashes or server failure.

As a non-relational database, Cassandra does not support joins or foreign keys, and consequently does not offer consistency in the ACID sense. For example, when moving money from account A to B the total in the accounts does not change. Cassandra supports atomicity and isolation at the row-level, but trades transactional isolation and atomicity for high availability and fast write performance. Cassandra writes are durable.

Atomicity in Cassandra

In Cassandra, a write is atomic at the row-level, meaning inserting or updating columns for a given row key will be treated as one write operation. Cassandra does not support transactions in the sense of bundling multiple row updates into one all-or-nothing operation. Nor does it roll back when a write succeeds on one replica, but fails on other replicas. It is possible in Cassandra to have a write operation report a failure to the client, but still actually persist the write to a replica.

For example, if using a write consistency level of QUORUM with a replication factor of 3, Cassandra will send the write to 2 replicas. If the write fails on one of the replicas but succeeds on the other, Cassandra will report a write failure to the client. However, the write is not automatically rolled back on the other replica.

Cassandra uses timestamps to determine the most recent update to a column. The timestamp is provided by the client application. The latest timestamp always wins when requesting data, so if multiple client sessions update the same columns in a row concurrently, the most recent update is the one that will eventually persist.

Tunable Consistency in Cassandra

There are no locking or transactional dependencies when concurrently updating multiple rows or column families. Cassandra supports tuning between availability and consistency, and always gives you partition tolerance. Cassandra can be tuned to give you strong consistency in the CAP sense where data is made consistent across all the nodes in a distributed database cluster. A user can pick and choose on a per operation basis how many nodes must receive a DML command or respond to a SELECT query.

Isolation in Cassandra

Prior to Cassandra 1.1, it was possible to see partial updates in a row when one user was updating the row while another user was reading that same row. For example, if one user was writing a row with two thousand columns, another user could potentially read that same row and see some of the columns, but not all of them if the write was still in progress.

Full row-level isolation is now in place so that writes to a row are isolated to the client performing the write and are not visible to any other user until they are complete.

From a transactional ACID (atomic, consistent, isolated, durable) standpoint, this enhancement now gives Cassandra transactional AID support. A write is isolated at the row-level in the storage engine.

Durability in Cassandra

Writes in Cassandra are durable. All writes to a replica node are recorded both in memory and in a commit log before they are acknowledged as a success. If a crash or server failure occurs before the memory tables are flushed to disk, the commit log is replayed on restart to recover any lost writes.

About Inserts and Updates

Any number of columns may be inserted at the same time. When inserting or updating columns in a column family, the client application specifies the row key to identify which column records to update. The row key is similar to a primary key in that it must be unique for each row within a column family. However, unlike a primary key, inserting a duplicate row key will not result in a primary key constraint violation - it will be treated as an UPSERT (update the specified columns in that row if they exist or insert them if they do not).

Columns are only overwritten if the timestamp in the new version of the column is more recent than the existing column, so precise timestamps are necessary if updates (overwrites) are frequent. The timestamp is provided by the client, so the clocks of all client machines should be synchronized using NTP (network time protocol).

About Deletes

When deleting a column in Cassandra, there are a few things to be aware of that may differ from what one would expect in a relational database.

  1. Deleted data is not immediately removed from disk. Data that is inserted into Cassandra is persisted to SSTables on disk. Once an SSTable is written, it is immutable (the file is not updated by further DML operations). This means that a deleted column is not removed immediately. Instead a marker called a tombstone is written to indicate the new column status. Columns marked with a tombstone exist for a configured time period (defined by the gc_grace_seconds value set on the column family), and then are permanently deleted by the compaction process after that time has expired.
  2. A deleted column can reappear if routine node repair is not run. Marking a deleted column with a tombstone ensures that a replica that was down at the time of delete will eventually receive the delete when it comes back up again. However, if a node is down longer than the configured time period for keeping tombstones (defined by the gc_grace_seconds value set on the column family), then the node can possibly miss the delete altogether, and replicate deleted data once it comes back up again. To prevent deleted data from reappearing, administrators must run regular node repair on every node in the cluster (by default, every 10 days).