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The cassandra.yaml file is the main configuration file for Cassandra. It is located in the following directories:
After changing properties in this file, you must restart the node for the changes to take effect.
** Some default values are set at the class level and may be missing or commented out in the cassandra.yaml file. Additionally, values in commented out options may not match the default value: they are the recommended value when changing from the default.
The following properties are used to initialize a new cluster or when introducing a new node to an established cluster. They control how a node is configured within a cluster, including inter-node communication, data partitioning, and replica placement. It is recommended that you carefully evaluate your requirements and make any changes before starting a node for the first time.
(Default: true) This setting has been removed from default configuration. It makes new (non-seed) nodes automatically migrate the right data to themselves. It is referenced here because auto_bootstrap: true is explicitly added to the cassandra.yaml file in an AMI installation. Setting this property to false is not recommended and is necessary only in rare instances.
(Default: listen_address**) If your Cassandra cluster is deployed across multiple Amazon EC2 regions and you use the EC2MultiRegionSnitch, set the broadcast_address to public IP address of the node and the listen_address to the private IP.
(Default: Test Cluster) The name of the cluster; used to prevent machines in one logical cluster from joining another. All nodes participating in a cluster must have the same value.
(Default: /var/lib/cassandra/commitlog) The directory where the commit log is stored. For optimal write performance, it is recommended the commit log be on a separate disk partition (ideally, a separate physical device) from the data file directories.
(Default: /var/lib/cassandra/data) The directory location where table data (SSTables) is stored.
(Default: stop) Sets how Cassandra responds to disk failure.
(Default: org.apache.cassandra.locator.SimpleSnitch) Sets which snitch Cassandra uses for locating nodes and routing requests. It must be set to a class that implements IEndpointSnitch. For descriptions of the snitches, see Types of snitches.
(Default: n/a) Used in versions prior to 1.2. If you haven't specified num_tokens or have set it to the default value of 1, you should always specify this parameter when setting up a production cluster for the first time and when adding capacity. For more information, see this parameter in the 1.1 Node and Cluster Configuration topic.
(Default: localhost) The IP address or hostname that other Cassandra nodes use to connect to this node. If left unset, the hostname must resolve to the IP address of this node using /etc/hostname, /etc/hosts, or DNS. Do not specify 0.0.0.0.
(Default: 1**) Defines the number of tokens randomly assigned to this node on the ring. The more tokens, relative to other nodes, the larger the proportion of data that the node stores. Generally all nodes should have the same number of tokens assuming they have equal hardware capability. Specifying the initial_token overrides this setting. The recommended value is 256.
If left unspecified, Cassandra uses the default value of 1 token (for legacy compatibility) and uses the initial_token. If you already have a cluster with one token per node, and wish to migrate to multiple tokens per node, see http://wiki.apache.org/cassandra/Operations.
(Default: org.apache.cassandra.dht.Murmur3Partitioner) Distributes rows (by key) across nodes in the cluster. Any IPartitioner may be used, including your own as long as it is on the classpath. Cassandra provides the following partitioners:
(Default: localhost) The listen address for client connections (Thrift remote procedure calls). Valid values are:
If left unset, the hostname must resolve to the IP address of this node using /etc/hostname, /etc/hosts, or DNS.
(Default: 9160) The port for the Thrift RPC service, which is used for client connections.
(Default: true) Starts the Thrift RPC server.
(Default: /var/lib/cassandra/saved_caches) The directory location where table key and row caches are stored.
(Default: org.apache.cassandra.locator.SimpleSeedProvider) A list of comma-delimited hosts (IP addresses) to use as contact points when a node joins a cluster. Cassandra also uses this list to learn the topology of the ring. When running multiple nodes, you must change the - seeds list from the default value (127.0.0.1). In multiple data-center clusters, the - seeds list should include at least one node from each data center (replication group).
(Default: false) Enable or disable the native transport server. Currently, only the Thrift server is started by default because the native transport is considered beta. Note that the address on which the native transport is bound is the same as the rpc_address. However, the port is different from the rpc_port and specified in native_transport_port.
(Default: 9042) Port on which the CQL native transport listens for clients.
(Default: 7000) The port for inter-node communication.
When creating or modifying tables, you enable or disable the key or row caches for that table by setting the caching parameter. Other row and key cache tuning and configuration options are set at the global (node) level. Cassandra uses these settings to automatically distribute memory for each table on the node based on the overall workload and specific table usage. You can also configure the save periods for these caches globally. For more information, see Configuring caches.
(Default: disabled - all keys are saved**) Number of keys from the key cache to save.
(Default: 14400 - 4 hours) Duration in seconds that keys are saved in cache. Caches are saved to saved_caches_directory. Saved caches greatly improve cold-start speeds and has relatively little effect on I/O.
(Default: empty, which automatically sets it to the smaller of 5% of the available heap, or 100MB) A global cache setting for tables. It is the maximum size of the key cache in memory. To disable set to 0.
(Default: disabled - all keys are saved**) Number of keys from the row cache to save.
(Default: 0 - disabled) A global cache setting for tables.
(Default: 0 - disabled) Duration in seconds that rows are saved in cache. Caches are saved to saved_caches_directory.
(Default: SerializingCacheProvider) Specifies what kind of implementation to use for the row cache.
The SerializingCacheProvider is 5 to 10 times more memory-efficient than ConcurrentLinkedHashCacheProvider for applications that are not blob-intensive. However, SerializingCacheProvider may perform worse in update-heavy workload situations because it invalidates cached rows on update instead of updating them in place as ConcurrentLinkedHashCacheProvider does.
The following properties tune performance and system resource utilization, such as memory, disk I/O, and CPU, for reads and writes.
(Default: 64) Add column indexes to a row when the data reaches this size. This value defines how much row data must be deserialized to read the column. Increase this setting if your column values are large or if you have a very large number of columns. If consistently reading only a few columns from each row or doing many partial-row reads, keep it small. All index data is read for each access, so take that into consideration when setting the index size.
(Default: 32 for 32-bit JVMs, 1024 for 64-bit JVMs) Sets the size of the individual commitlog file segments. A commitlog segment may be archived, deleted, or recycled after all its data has been flushed to SSTables. This amount of data can potentially include commitlog segments from every table in the system. The default size is usually suitable for most commitlog archiving, but if you want a finer granularity, 8 or 16 MB is reasonable. See Commit log archive configuration.
(Default: periodic) The method that Cassandra uses to acknowledge writes in milliseconds:
(Default: 32 for 32-bit JVMs, 1024 for 64-bit JVMs**) Total space used for commitlogs. If the used space goes above this value, Cassandra rounds up to the next nearest segment multiple and flushes memtables to disk for the oldest commitlog segments, removing those log segments. This reduces the amount of data to replay on startup, and prevents infrequently-updated tables from indefinitely keeping commitlog segments. A small total commitlog space tends to cause more flush activity on less-active tables.
(Default: true) When set to true, cached row keys are tracked during compaction, and re-cached to their new positions in the compacted SSTable. If you have extremely large key caches for tables, set the value to false; see Global row and key caches properties.
(Default: 16) Throttles compaction to the given total throughput across the entire system. The faster you insert data, the faster you need to compact in order to keep the SSTable count down. The recommended Value is 16 to 32 times the rate of write throughput (in MBs/second). Setting the value to 0 disables compaction throttling.
(Default: 1 per CPU core**) Sets the number of concurrent compaction processes allowed to run simultaneously on a node, not including validation compactions for anti-entropy repair. Simultaneous compactions help preserve read performance in a mixed read-write workload by mitigating the tendency of small SSTables to accumulate during a single long-running compaction. If compactions run too slowly or too fast, change compaction_throughput_mb_per_sec first.
(Default: 32) For workloads with more data than can fit in memory, the bottleneck is reads fetching data from disk. Setting to (16 * number_of_drives) allows operations to queue low enough in the stack so that the OS and drives can reorder them.
(Default: 32) Writes in Cassandra are rarely I/O bound, so the ideal number of concurrent writes depends on the number of CPU cores in your system. The recommended value is (8 * number_of_cpu_cores).
(Default: false) Enable or disable operation timeout information exchange between nodes (to accurately measure request timeouts). If disabled Cassandra assumes the request was forwarded to the replica instantly by the coordinator.
Before enabling this property make sure NTP (network time protocol) is installed and the times are synchronized between the nodes.
(Default: 0.75) When Java heap usage (after a full concurrent mark sweep (CMS) garbage collection) exceeds the set value, Cassandra flushes the largest memtables to disk to free memory. This parameter is an emergency measure to prevent sudden out-of-memory (OOM) errors. Do not use it as a tuning mechanism. It is most effective under light to moderate loads or read-heavy workloads; it will fail under massive write loads. A value of 0.75 flushes memtables when Java heap usage is above 75% total heap size. Set to 1.0 to disable. Other emergency measures are reduce_cache_capacity_to and reduce_cache_sizes_at.
(Default: 64) Size limit for rows being compacted in memory. Larger rows spill to disk and use a slower two-pass compaction process. When this occurs, a message is logged specifying the row key. The recommended value is 5 to 10 percent of the available Java heap size.
(Default: 128) Controls the sampling of entries from the primary row index. The interval corresponds to the number of index entries that are skipped between taking each sample. By default Cassandra samples one row key out of every 128. The larger the interval, the smaller and less effective the sampling. The larger the sampling, the more effective the index, but with increased memory usage. Generally, the best trade off between memory usage and performance is a value between 128 and 512 in combination with a large table key cache. However, if you have small rows (many to an OS page), you may want to increase the sample size, which often lowers memory usage without an impact on performance. For large rows, decreasing the sample size may improve read performance.
(Default: 4) The number of full memtables to allow pending flush (memtables waiting for a write thread). At a minimum, set to the maximum number of secondary indexes created on a single table.
(Default: 1 per data directory**) Sets the number of memtable flush writer threads. These threads are blocked by disk I/O, and each one holds a memtable in memory while blocked. If you have a large Java heap size and many data directories, you can increase the value for better flush performance.
(Default: false) When set to true, each compaction operation uses one thread per core and one thread per SSTable being merged. This is typically useful only on nodes with SSD hardware. With HDD hardware, the goal is to limit the disk I/O for compaction (see compaction_throughput_mb_per_sec).
(Default: false**) Populates the page cache on memtable flush and compaction. Enable this setting only when the whole node's data fits in memory.
(Default: 0.6) Sets the size percentage to which maximum cache capacity is reduced when Java heap usage reaches the threshold defined by reduce_cache_sizes_at. Together with flush_largest_memtables_at, these properties constitute an emergency measure for preventing sudden out-of-memory (OOM) errors.
(Default: 0.85) When Java heap usage (after a full concurrent mark sweep (CMS) garbage collection) exceeds this percentage, Cassandra reduces the cache capacity to the fraction of the current size as specified by reduce_cache_capacity_to. To disable, set the value to 1.0.
(Default: 400**) Throttles all outbound streaming file transfers on a node to the specified throughput. Cassandra does mostly sequential I/O when streaming data during bootstrap or repair, which can lead to saturating the network connection and degrading client (RPC) performance.
(Default: false) When doing sequential writing, enabling this option tells fsync to force the operating system to flush the dirty buffers at a set interval (trickle_fsync_interval_in_kb [default: 10240]). Enable this parameter to avoid sudden dirty buffer flushing from impacting read latencies. Recommended to use on SSDs, but not on HDDs.
The following timeout properties are used by the binary protocol.
(Default: 10000) The time in milliseconds that the coordinator waits for read operations to complete.
(Default: 10000) The time in milliseconds that the coordinator waits for sequential or index scans to complete.
(Default: 10000) The default timeout for other, miscellaneous operations.
(Default: 60000) The time in milliseconds that the coordinator waits for truncates to complete. The long default value allows for flushing of all tables, which ensures that anything in the commitlog is removed that could cause truncated data to reappear. If auto_snapshot is disabled, you can reduce this time.
(Default: 10000) The time in milliseconds that the coordinator waits for write operations to complete.
(Default: 10000) The default timeout for other, miscellaneous operations.
The following properties are used to configure and tune RPCs (client connections).
(Default: org.apache.cassandra.scheduler.NoScheduler) Defines a scheduler to handle incoming client requests according to a defined policy. This scheduler is useful for throttling client requests in single clusters containing multiple keyspaces. Valid values are:
(Default: keyspace**) An identifier on which to perform request scheduling. Currently the only valid value is keyspace.
(Default: disabled) Contains a list of properties that define configuration options for request_scheduler:
(Default: true) Enable or disable keepalive on client connections.
(Default: unlimited**) Regardless of your choice of RPC server (rpc_server_type), the number of maximum requests in the RPC thread pool dictates how many concurrent requests are possible. However, if you are using the parameter sync in the rpc_server_type, it also dictates the number of clients that can be connected. For a large number of client connections, this could cause excessive memory usage for the thread stack. Connection pooling on the client side is highly recommended. Setting a maximum thread pool size acts as a safeguard against misbehaved clients. If the maximum is reached, Cassandra blocks additional connections until a client disconnects.
(Default: N/A**) Sets the receiving socket buffer size for remote procedure calls.
(Default: N/A**) Sets the sending socket buffer size in bytes for remote procedure calls.
(Default: 0 - never timeout streams**) Enable or disable socket timeout for streaming operations. When a timeout occurs during streaming, streaming is retried from the start of the current file. Avoid setting this value too low, as it can result in a significant amount of data re-streaming.
(Default: sync) Cassandra provides three options for the RPC server. On Windows, sync is about 30% slower than hsha. On Linux, sync and hsha performance is about the same, but hsha uses less memory.
(Default: 15) Frame size (maximum field length) for Thrift. The frame is the row or part of the row the application is inserting.
(Default: 16) The maximum length of a Thrift message in megabytes, including all fields and internal Thrift overhead (1 byte of overhead for each frame).
Message length is usually used in conjunction with batches. A frame length greater than or equal to 24 accommodates a batch with four inserts, each of which is 24 bytes. The required message length is greater than or equal to 24+24+24+24+4 (number of frames).
(Default: 0.0) Sets the performance threshold for dynamically routing requests away from a poorly performing node. A value of 0.2 means Cassandra continues to prefer the static snitch values until the node response time is 20% worse than the best performing node. Until the threshold is reached, incoming client requests are statically routed to the closest replica (as determined by the snitch). Having requests consistently routed to a given replica can help keep a working set of data hot when read repair is less than 1.
(Default: 600000) Time interval in milliseconds to reset all node scores, which allows a bad node to recover.
(Default: 100) The time interval in milliseconds for calculating read latency.
(Default: true) Enable or disable hinted handoff. A hint indicates that the write needs to be replayed to an unavailable node. Where Cassandra writes the hint depends on the version:
(Default: 1024) Rate per delivery thread that hints are sent to the node in kilobytes per second.
(Default: 10800000 - 3 hours) Defines how long in milliseconds to generate and save hints for an unresponsive node. After this interval, new hints are no longer generated until the node is back up and responsive. If the node goes down again, a new interval begins. This setting can prevent a sudden demand for resources when a node is brought back online and the rest of the cluster attempts to replay a large volume of hinted writes.
(Default: 2) Number of threads with which to deliver hints. For multiple data center deployments, consider increasing this number because cross data-center handoff is generally slower.
(Default: 8**) Adjusts the sensitivity of the failure detector on an exponential scale. Lower values increase the likelihood that an unresponsive node will be marked as down, while higher values decrease the likelihood that transient failures will cause a node failure. In unstable network environments (such as EC2 at times), raising the value to 10 or 12 helps prevent false failures. Values higher than 12 and lower than 5 are not recommended.
(Default: true) Enable or disable whether a snapshot is taken of the data before keyspace truncation or dropping of tables. To prevent data loss, using the default setting is strongly advised. If you set to false, you will lose data on truncation or drop.
(Default: false) Backs up data updated since the last snapshot was taken. When enabled, Cassandra creates a hard link to each SSTable flushed or streamed locally in a backups/ subdirectory of the keyspace data. Removing these links is the operator's responsibility.
(Default: false) Enable or disable taking a snapshot before each compaction. This option is useful to back up data when there is a data format change. Be careful using this option because Cassandra does not clean up older snapshots automatically.
(Default: org.apache.cassandra.auth.AllowAllAuthenticator) The authentication backend. It implements IAuthenticator, which is used to identify users.
(Default: 2000) How long permissions in cache remain valid. Depending on the authorizer, fetching permissions can be resource intensive. This setting is automatically disabled when AllowAllAuthorizer is set.
Enable or disable inter-node encryption. You must also generate keys and provide the appropriate key and trust store locations and passwords. No custom encryption options are currently enabled.
The available options are:
The passwords used in these options must match the passwords used when generating the keystore and truststore. For instructions on generating these files, see: Creating a Keystore to Use with JSSE.
The advanced settings are:
Enable or disable client-to-node encryption. You must also generate keys and provide the appropriate key and trust store locations and passwords. No custom encryption options are currently enabled.
The advanced settings are:
(Default: N/A**) Sets the sending socket buffer size in bytes for inter-node calls.
(Default: N/A**) Sets the receiving socket buffer size in bytes for inter-node calls.
(Default: all) Controls whether traffic between nodes is compressed. The valid values are:
(Default: false) Enable or disable tcp_nodelay for inter-data center communication. When disabled larger, but fewer, network packets are sent. This reduces overhead from the TCP protocol itself. However, if cross data-center responses are blocked, it will increase latency.
(Default: 7001) The SSL port for encrypted communication. Unused unless enabled in encryption_options.