DataStax Enterprise 3.0 Documentation

Multiple data center deployment

This documentation corresponds to an earlier product version. Make sure this document corresponds to your version.

Latest DSE documentation | Earlier DSE documentation

In this scenario, a mixed workload cluster has more than one data center for each type of node. For example, if the cluster has 4 Hadoop nodes, 4 Cassandra nodes, and 2 Solr nodes, the cluster could have 5 data centers: 2 data centers for Hadoop nodes, 2 data centers for Cassandra nodes, and 1 data center for Solr nodes. A single data center cluster has only 1 data center for each type of node.

Data replication can be distributed across multiple, geographically dispersed data centers, between different physical racks in a data center, or between public cloud providers and on-premise managed data centers. Data replicates across the data centers automatically and transparently - no ETL work is necessary to move data between different systems or servers. You can configure the number of copies of the data in each data center and Cassandra handles the rest, replicating the data for you. To configure a single data center cluster, see Single data center deployment.


To correctly configure a multi-node cluster with multiple data centers, requires:

  • DataStax Enterprise is installed on each node.

  • The total number of nodes in the cluster.

  • A name for the cluster.

  • The IP addresses of each node in the cluster.

  • Which nodes will serve as the seed nodes. (DataStax Enterprise nodes use this host list to find each other and learn the topology of the ring.)

  • If the nodes are behind a firewall, make sure you know what ports you need to open. See Configuring firewall port access.

  • Other configuration settings you may need are described in Choosing Node Configuration Options and Node and Cluster Configuration.

    In DataStax Enterprise 3.0.1, the default consistency level has changed from ONE to QUORUM for reads and writes to resolve a problem finding a CassandraFS block when using consistency level ONE on a Hadoop node.

This information is used to configure the following properties on each node in the cluster:

Configuration example

This example describes installing a six node cluster spanning two data centers. The steps for configuring multiple data centers on binary and packaged installations are the same except the configuration files are located in different directories.

Location of the property files in packaged installations:

  • /etc/dse/cassandra/cassandra.yaml
  • /etc/dse/cassandra/
  • /etc/dse/dse.yaml

Location of the property files in binary installations:

  • <install_location>/resources/cassandra/conf/cassandra.yaml
  • <install_location>/resources/cassandra/conf/
  • <install_location>/resources/dse/conf/dse.yaml


After changing properties in these files, you must restart the node for the changes to take effect.

To configure a cluster with multiple data centers:

  1. Suppose you install DataStax Enterprise on these nodes:
  2. Assign tokens so that data is evenly distributed within each data center by calculating the token assignments with the Token Generating Tool and offset the token for the second data center:

    Node IP Address Token Offset Data Center
    node0 0 NA DC1
    node1 56713727820156410577229101238628035242 NA DC1
    node2 113427455640312821154458202477256070485 NA DC1
    node3 10 10 DC2
    node4 56713727820156410577229101238628035252 10 DC2
    node5 113427455640312821154458202477256070495 10 DC2
  1. Stop the nodes and clear the data.

    • For packaged installs, run the following commands:

      $ sudo service dse stop (stops the service)

      $ sudo rm -rf /var/lib/cassandra/* (clears the data from the default directories)

    • For binary installs, run the following commands from the install directory:

      $ ps auwx | grep dse (finds the Cassandra and DataStax Enterprise Java process ID [PID])

      $ sudo kill <pid> (stops the process)

      $ sudo rm -rf /var/lib/cassandra/* (clears the data from the default directories)

  2. Modify the following property settings in the cassandra.yaml file for each node:

    • initial_token: <token from previous step>
    • -seeds: <internal IP_address of each seed node>
    • listen_address: <localhost IP address>


    initial_token: 0
       - class_name: org.apache.cassandra.locator.SimpleSeedProvider
            - seeds: ","


    You must include at least one node from each data center. It is a best practice to have at more than one seed node per data center.

node1 to node5

The properties for the rest of the nodes are the same as Node0 except for the initial_token and listen_address:

Node initial_token listen address
node1 56713727820156410577229101238628035242
node2 113427455640312821154458202477256070485
node3 10
node4 56713727820156410577229101238628035252
node5 113427455640312821154458202477256070495
  1. For each node, change the dse.yaml file to specify the snitch to be delegated by the DseDelegateSnitch. For more information about snitches, see the About Snitches. For example, to specify the PropertyFileSnitch, enter:

    delegated_snitch: org.apache.cassandra.locator.PropertyFileSnitch
  2. Determine a naming convention for each data center and rack, for example: DC1, DC2 or 100, 200 and RAC1, RAC2 or R101, R102.

  3. In the file, assign data center and rack names to the IP addresses of each node, and assign a default data center name and rack name for unknown nodes. For example:

    # Cassandra Node IP=Data Center:Rack
    # default for unknown nodes
  4. After you have installed and configured DataStax Enterprise on all nodes, start the seed nodes one at a time, and then start the rest of the nodes.


    If the node has restarted because of automatic restart, you must stop the node and clear the data directories, as described above.

  5. Check that your ring is up and running:

    • Packaged installs: nodetool ring -h localhost
    • Binary installs:
    $ cd /<install_directory>
    $ bin/nodetool ring -h localhost


More information about configuring data centers

Links to more information about configuring a data center: